Why shell pearl is formed?For example, the ancient Greeks were absolutely sure that the pearl stones are frozen tears of the nymphs.In this they were almost right.Just as nymphs serves amazing kind of shellfish.When the inside of the shell gets some foreign body, for example, a grain of sand, the pearl it perceives as an injury from "cry" for its pearl tears, thereby obscuring of the foreign object.That's pearl is born.
Natural pearls belongs to the category of the rarest gemstones, hence its corresponding value.Such individual stones are mostly sold at auction and bought by collectors.
To date, most of the minerals sold in stores are cultivated.
Cultured pearls - is a mineral-grown man in conditions similar to the natural, on special farms.They cared for shells and watched.To date, 99% of the stones in the jewelry market in the world of cultured pearls.Its price - $ 2000-5000, depending on whether it is freshwater or sea.It must be emphasized that it is also natural mineral because
difference between cultured and artificial pearls
Once again, Cultured pearls - is a natural mineral.It is a mistake to consider it artificial.The process of cultivation is very delicate and complex, it takes an average of 5 years.People who grow it, unable to influence in any way the outcome of the process of growth and pearls can not imagine how it will look the result of their work, in addition, can not be sure that it does not reject the clam ahead of time.Not all grown minerals meet the quality standards and, therefore, in this business quite a high percentage of marriage.And the result depends largely on the nature only.
methods of cultivation of pearls
There are two main ways of its cultivation.
nuclear-free.This is an inexpensive way that is most widely used in the cultivation of freshwater pearls.
Nuclear.In this case, the sink is seeded with (core).This method is used for the cultivation of sea pearls.
So, how exactly does this happen?Initially, pearl is the donor.This is mainly young oysters with a good mantle (as it is called pearl shell).Also pay attention to the good development of the gonads (reproductive glands that secrete nacre), which has a clam.Pearls are formed in it as follows.Shell with pearl pliers open, followed by a real surgical operation: special tools in a very soft fabric makes a small incision into which the graft - a piece of donor mantle.Beside him a small ball placed recovered from freshwater bivalve.Next pearl goes back to the lagoon, and there spends quiet 2 more years.
should be emphasized that this is the most dangerous period: it can throw the core or die - the likelihood of this is high.If all goes smoothly, a few years formed pearls.Here, from the visual advantages - the ideal surface of the stone, as the pearl grows a thin layer on the artificial flat ball.In this real pearl nacre thickness of 0.2-1 mm.In this 10 mm mineral grows year.Such natural pearls can be called a stretch.When you take in hand, he immediately heats up like a piece of plastic - a man and inexperienced instantly distinguish the real, cold, heavy stone on it easily warms weightless copycat.
nuclear-free way to
The advantages of this method of cultivation is that with continued growth and fairly small nucleus cultured mineral is not inferior to anything, and often superior to natural stone in color and size.At the present moment almost all freshwater cultured pearl, whose size is not more than 8-9 mm, is grown for this technology.It is used as the core of a tiny grain of nacre, which is taken from the most shells.
also grown minerals are freshwater and marine, depending on the habitat of pearl.
It grows in freshwater river or lake water, including former Chinese rice fields.The fields are completely flooded, in this place there was a comfortable microclimate for mollusks, where they multiply rapidly, as well as nurturing a pearl.Farmers always monitor the temperature of the water, its pH and composition.During maturation pearl shellfish need to turn from time to time that the stone does not get a "one-sided".In other words, round pearls gets very heavy labor, including in a farm.Freshwater pearls are cultured - a very popular mineral due to a variety of sizes, colors and shapes.The average size of 4-6 mm it.Very rare pearls the size of about 10 mm, therefore, on a pearl price increases dramatically!
most common shell - «Hyriopsis schlegeli», originating from a family Unionide.At its outer side mainly brown, while the internal - white and smooth.In freshwater pearls there is no core.The exceptions are those minerals that are larger than 10 mm.At 1.5, the size of the stone up to 3 mm, even after 3 years - 7 mm.7 mm in diameter, they will become even after 4 years.Consequently, the pearl of 10 mm and a rise of about 7 years !!!There
following freshwater mineral shades: cream, white, champagne, brown, light purple, purple and pink pearls.
Forms can be from drop-shaped, egg-shaped oval to kartofeleobraznogo.Very rare large, perfectly round pearl.
Sea pearls cultured
This mineral, which is grown on the same farm, but only placed on the high seas.It is more valuable freshwater.From a shell is usually removed no more than one, sometimes three pearls.Basically, they have the right shape, beautiful shine.Why such a price is more pearls?Sea salt water gives it a more even color and a special hue, rather than fresh, so its cost is higher.
Sea pearls grow faster than the river.At the same time life expectancy of a pearl-shell is 8-10 years.You have to understand that the sea is very difficult to protect the clams from sudden changes in water temperature and storms.So, when you change the temperature on the body clam 2˚ immediately begins to produce acid that eats away the pearl, or more precisely its upper layer, and it is from that loses shine and becomes cloudy.Therefore, pearl farmers 1 day often lose the result of several years of work.In this way, to reduce the time of maturation mineral today many marine farms using kernel-seeded.
Akoya Cultured pearls
This marine natural pearls grown in the south of Japan.In late autumn collect his best harvest pearls.Then the mineral acquires maximum brilliance.This stone diameter up to 9 mm and is very expensive.Its price begins to increase with each new millimeter when the diameter of 8 mm.Basically, it is cultivated in Japan, although it is now exporting it started, and China.
Mineral grown in 2-leaf shellfish that belong to the genus Pinctada, their name in Japanese sounds like Akoya-kai.Actually, hence came the name of the stone.
These molluscs reach 7-8 cm, the size of pearls - 6-8 mm.At the same minerals larger sizes across much rarer.The bulk of the pearls is going on islands of Kyushu and Honshu.The oldest and most famous place of cultivation is considered to Ago Bay.
growing process usually takes 1.5-4 g
Akoya pearls with its qualitative characteristics is called Hanadama.It belongs to a class AA and AAA.In this class of minerals A and B is about 30-40% of the total volume.
main stone color: cream-white, pearl-white and pink pearls.Periodically, there are minerals silvery-green and silver colors.
shape of pearls is different, with the most ideal is spherical.
Pearls South Seas
Road, is rare, and the market takes an elite niche.In Indonesia and Australia produced gold and white pearls.While the growth process is almost the same as that of the Akoyya these stones is much larger: for example, the size of the mineral is 20 mm.
This grade pearls grown by a mollusc Pinctada maxima.At the moment it is cultivated along the coasts of the Indian and Pacific oceans, in the Philippines, Australia, Myanmar and Indonesia.
The bulk of the harvest is 9-20 mm.This size of pearls is provided by various factors:
- shellfish Pinctada maxima are on the coast between southern China and Australia.The excess plankton and clear warm water allows the pearl to grow faster, and speeds up the metabolism inside the oyster.
- size Pinctada maxima in adulthood can reach 30 cm, which makes it possible to implant the nucleus of the gonads is much larger than the Akoya.
- The Pinctada maxima pearl placed in the core of her age of 1 year and a couple of years needed to grow a mineral.Long cultivation enables the production of elite varieties of large size.
These stones have a particularly large scale, warm shades of color and a matte satin sheen.The farms are mainly used two species Pinctada maxima: gold-lipped and silver-lipped, in other words, pearl with gold and silver mother-of-pearl color and defining.
unique feature of this mineral is surprisingly thick layer of nacre - 2-6 mm (thickness of Akoya pearls is 0.35-1.2 mm).
the world market and these stones are sometimes ranked as black pearls, sometimes - the pearl of Cortez.But this is absolutely not true.Although according to the classification CIBJO (International Jewellery Confederation), the concept of "South Sea Pearls" can be attributed to the stones, which were grown in the Pinctada maxima.
Also Australian mineral density and structure of the pearl shell is much better than the Japanese.
Each jewel - it's a terrific product of nature, especially given the fact that none of them in shape is not repeated.This mineral - perfect.At the same time he does not need special treatment, it is not necessary to give some other form.Everyone - pear-shaped, round, "button" - a mineral is incredibly valuable, because it does not require chemical treatment because of the pearl oysters are extracted already smooth, dry and clean.But not every black stone, which can be seen in the jewelry shops really black.Sometimes masters specially dyed white minerals, to create a special effect.You have to understand that it is still a fake, albeit of very high quality.
This mineral is the highest standard appears to Tahiti.It is characterized by the ability to sparkle in the sun, in addition, an interesting "metallic" coloring, which is not typical for some other varieties of pearls.There is an opinion that it is often "black", hence its name, and there was, but he really is gray with its various shades.Also, there are stones of this variety with coloring unusual for them: blue, aubergine, green, olive, blue and red.
most expensive kind of Tahitian pearls
This includes cobalt blue and iridescent blue color.The necklace each pearl should have a rounded shape, with a diameter not be smaller than 12 mm, and, of course, ideally suited to their neighbors in color.Such is the present state of decoration, because it's going to for years, because they do not master any lucky enough to create such a miracle.Nature creates too few such ideal ferrous minerals.Sometimes the two similar balls and earrings are missing.
should be understood that the black pearl is always on the first cast.His personality makes the master in his decision to start from the witch, hot, dark pearlescent glow.Of course, it is always the product of extravagant enough.They may be the woman to make a unique, bright, remembered.Of course, for every girl black pearls - it's a real witch's brew, the search itself, constant updating, perpetual study depths of his own personality, as well as opening the mysterious desert island in the ocean of the soul.