One of the most famous and beloved Russian folk festivals that has been preserved since the days of paganism - it's Mardi Gras.Description of the holiday, a summary of the scenarios of rites and rituals require the creation of a separate article.Therefore, I suggest to get acquainted with details of the history and traditions of national celebration.
ancient Slavs believed that Carnival symbolizes the strengthening of the pagan god of the sun.Because of the weak infant Kolyada it turns into a strong young man Yarily, which helps in the summer to get a rich harvest in the fields.In honor of this and arrange Carnival.Description of the holiday in Russia is presented as a meeting of spring and cajoling the gods to ask for a new prosperous harvest.
to the XIV century, every year in Russia starts ticking on 1 March.Therefore holiday Maslenitsa meant as the New Year.The traditional festive meal had pancakes that were a symbol of the solar circle.Hot and rosy, they are similar to the sun
Eventually pagan festival, which lasted fourteen days, became a Christian.He began to precede the onset of Lent, which lasts forty days and ending on Easter - Easter Sunday.Because of this, Mardi Gras became moveable feast depending on the timing of Easter, and was reduced to seven days.
In the time of Peter the Great issued a decree to celebrate the holiday in the image of European carnivals.Gay and remove remember our ancestors and reached our days Carnival.Description of the holiday (photo below) resembles an Italian carnival, which in translation sounds like "Farewell, beef."Seven days preceding Lent, also called Myasopust.In those days they were forbidden to eat meat, although other Skoromniy products (butter, milk, eggs, fish) have been allowed.
traditions and rituals of the week Cheese strictly ordered and subject to the sacred number seven.It takes many days Carnival.Description of the holiday (burning of effigies, festivals, gatherings and so on. P.) Says that begins Myasopust exactly seven weeks before Easter and is divided into two parts.Narrow Pancake - this is a short period, which includes the first three days of the week.The second part (starting on Thursday and ending Sunday) called Wide Maslenitsa.Description of each day talking about his special assignment, and due to the performance of certain rituals.
During the week, people go to visit, treat each other hearty holiday food, fun, dancing and singing.Culmination of the holiday falls on a Sunday.This day comes burning effigy of winter.The ritual symbolizes the inevitable change of seasons.This solemn event and ends with Mardi Gras.
Description of the holiday for children and adults contains a deeper meaning, based on folk wisdom.He speaks of sacrifice, which is necessary for future fertility.Birth of Life anticipates struggle, death and resurrection.Later in the article we consider the description of each day of Pancake festival.We also know what customs Cheese-fare week survived to the present day.
Day One - Meeting
narrow Carnival.Description on days of events that must take place in the festive week starts on Monday.From scrap materials (straw, cloth, hemp), the youth master of big doll, its rites in women's clothes.So came the ritual of creating stuffed animals, which was called "Mardi Gras."
Description of the holiday in the ancient towns and villages confirms that this day was full of important events.Pancake impaled and put on public display in the central square.The children collected dry twigs, straw residues, old rags and put all this together, preparing for a future fire burning effigies.Men built Snowtown, which then staged cheerful carnage.For children and adults have built ice slides, embedded rollers, set colorful carousel.
whole week rejoice and be glad the people straw Carnival.Description of the holiday refers to the crowded fairs, where there was a brisk trade in various goods and arranged noisy presentation with mummers.The people cheered and the clowns clowns who sang cheerful ditties and organized funny jokes.Men organized different competitions, where they could measure their strength and show their valiant prowess.All the events of the first day of the meeting stressed the special joy of an important event called Carnival.
Description holiday for children noted the special care of them.For the kids cooked sweet table where cockerels pleased candy on a stick, sugar nuts and other sweets.In the area of booths set where she had puppet shows.The children created for their fun little straw woman.It is planted on the sled and drove around the village.
On the first day people started to walk in guests.The board certainly exhibited pancakes with various fillings.Particularly welcomed the round-shaped pastries: tarts, bagels, rolls.In addition, the hostess necessarily prepared pancakes, potato cakes with mushrooms, cheese, cabbage.Dear guests were treated to a variety of nuts (pine, walnut, forest), roasted sunflower seeds, candy.
the first day of Maslenitsa newlyweds came to mother-in-law to teach children to cook pancakes.According to custom, the first baked pancake gave poor or blissful people to commemorate the dead.
Day Two - Zaigrysh
name Tuesday said his special cheerful mood.On the morning young people were treated to pancakes, ride on the carousel and ice slides.Boys flirted with girls, searching for himself among them brides.Very popular were riding so wealthy suitors specially by this time acquired a painted sleigh, which drove his beloved.
Festive celebrations in Meatfare week called Pancake fun.They arranged a variety of entertainment and fun: snow battles, taking the snow town, wrestling, submission bear, jumps over a bonfire, horse sled downhill.
Day Three - Gourmet
Wednesday ended narrow Carnival.Description of the holiday on this day speaks of his special importance in maintaining family relationships.Adult children come to visit their parents, gave them gifts, and congratulations on the holiday.Every mother-in-law in the gourmet cook pancakes at its special original recipe and regaled them dear in-law.In addition, the tables were laden with all kinds of eatables, which were treated as family members and close friends.Since related trips became known as Pancake Day visit "to his mother on pancakes."
With gourmet involves a lot of humorous songs, proverbs and sayings that say about the relationship of close relatives "in-law in the yard - a pie on the table";"in-law on the threshold - Tesza for eggs";"come-in-law, where the sour cream to take?"Particularly costly was a holiday for those families with many daughters grew.Hence I was born saying: "even with all laid, but Pancake wires!"
Day Four - Razguliay
Wide Maslenitsa.Description day holiday week continues Thursday, which tripled in a binge.People indulged in all sorts of pleasures with special force.The streets were taken effigy on the wheel, singing, having fun and arranges horse riding.It was believed that the custom of helping the sun will spend the winter.In a sign that young people riding on threes around the village, moving clockwise.
That was a Mardi Gras.Description of the holiday picture suggests that the fourth day was a turning point in the Pancake week, so the festivities were stormy, and lasted until late at night.Children go from house to house caroling.Men Razguliay staged battle in the snowy town, and were measured by in fist fights or went "wall to wall".Girls staged dances, circle dances, singing ditties naughty.On this day, for couples is not considered shameful to kiss in front of everybody.A very shy could just throw snowballs.And, of course, continued to prepare countless pancakes and they treat each other.
Day Five - Teschin Vecherki
Friday Tiffany came to his daughters and zyatyam, making it a return visit.Guests are greeted with a special reverence and respect.-Law wife's relatives were treated to hot pancakes and provide them with all sorts of honors.On this day, there were not just a feast, and spiritual conversations, in which the older generation gave advice to young, warn them and admonished them.
Description Pancake Day will be incomplete if you do not talk about how to prepare for Teschin evening.When the mother-in-law forgot to call to visit, she could be offended by life.The ritual was that, after an invitation to each mother-in-law the night before in-law went to the house utensils: pans, bowls and other utensils for a batch of pancakes.Products coming from the test, of which in-law would be able to knead the dough.On Friday morning at Teschin House sent a messenger with a reminder that they are waiting for a visit.On the day Teschin evening closed all the stores and shops, and schools canceled classes.
Day Six - Zolovkina gatherings
On Saturday the young daughter-in-law invites - the sister of her husband.The house also came married girlfriend and young women.The hostess covering for her friends a festive table and dispensed zolovok gifts.Women gatherings are a good opportunity to exchange news and gossip on various topics.
On the sixth day of Shrovetide lasted festive revelry and feasting.One of the main pastimes became lynx running and riding a painted threes.
seventh day - Forgiveness Sunday
Sunday made a major rite, who accompanied Carnival - burning effigies.Straw Babu first rolled through the village and then exported outside the village, where burned.When burned doll, young people began to jump over the fire.In addition to the wood fire throwing old things, such as the wooden wheel.It symbolized the sun, which is fast approaching spring.
In some villages Pancake drowned in the hole or torn apart and scattered the remains of the village.Sometimes, instead of straw-stuffed Carnival chose an old woman or old man.They were dressed in festive attire, carried on a sled through the village and then dumped into the snow.
ritual destruction of a straw doll symbolized a farewell to the Carnival, and the resurrection of her powers with the onset of spring in the sprouted grain breads.On the last day of Maslenitsa allowed to drink alcohol and have fun until the morning.Sunday has completed a week-long national celebration.On the last day of the week on the eve of Lent, all asked each other's forgiveness, freeing your soul from sin.In order to fully repent, it was decided after burning effigies go to the steam bath.
According Pancake today?
ancient pagan festival has maintained its traditions until today.In honor of the many Russian cities conducted carnivals with mummers heroes, masquerades and fireworks.Guests can arrange Pancake area with a stage, attractions and places selling souvenirs and holiday meals.
The Pancake week decided to devote more time to his family, to visit relatives and to receive visitors at home.In Forgiveness Sunday all Orthodox people repent of their own sins and show mercy to others.
particularly welcome the participation of kids and teenagers in the gay festival called Mardi Gras.Description of the holiday for the children stories and traditions extant provides useful knowledge to the younger generation of his people.Promotion of the week Cheese includes mandatory participation in the urban activities for families with children.For children in kindergartens and schools set colorful stuffed Carnival and organize collective farewell to winter.Numerous workshops for the preparation of a variety of pancakes with the indispensable participation of their children are taught to work and tell about what Mardi Gras.Description of scenarios for children of celebration includes competitions on knowledge of traditions, proverbs and sayings associated with Carnival.It is also proposed a variety of different competitions, fun and games with mandatory decorations and gifts.All of this enriches children with new knowledge and helps organize cultural leisure.
According Pancake in other countries?
Maslenitsa - is not only a celebration of the Slavs, it has long been celebrated in many European countries.Holiday week marks the arrival of spring and is held in the form of a carnival.At this time, stop quarrels and strife reigns fun, laughter and good humor.
In Scotland, on Shrove Tuesday decided to bake round cakes fasting - similar Russian pancakes.For this event in the building treated very seriously and involve participation by all members of the family.Each was assigned a separate role, knead the dough, oiled pan, turn the tortillas, stack them in piles.
In England, too wide and fun Mardi Gras is celebrated.Description of the holiday in the English language tells of an interesting tradition organize competitions in running with pancakes.Participation in them will only accept women who run the signal bell, holding in his hands a hot frying pan with a pancake.Each of the participants must be over 18 years old and wearing a scarf and kitchen apron.The most difficult part in the competition is that you need while running three times to throw a pancake in a frying pan and catch it.Participant, who came to the finish line first, transmits its pancake bell-ringer in exchange for a kiss from him.
In Russia, the protagonists of the event were the newlyweds.It was considered very fortunate to marry at Pancake week.In some European countries, it focuses on unmarried people.In Poland, young girls are inviting you guys treat them pancakes.Instead, thanks young guys con their heads, and the girls can ottyagat their hair.
start of the holiday in the Czech Republic account for another 6 January reached its peak in the last week before Lent.In the villages young men smear their faces with soot and singing happy songs, bypassed the village.With a motley they take a piece of wood - klatik who wear counter the girls on the neck or tied to the hand.To pay off the suitors harassment, she should pay them.
In France, the second day of the week is called Fat Tuesday or Mardi Gras.Its history is linked to an ancient legend of a beautiful girl, beautiful roses that had saved from the hands of the devil brave man Gabriel.Holiday eating pancakes and accompanied by a merry carnival, which is to end at midnight.
Greece Apokriesom called Shrove Tuesday, which means "without meat".The celebration lasts three weeks and includes a mandatory tradition pig roast on the fire.An essential attribute of the holiday as a carnival procession with fun songs and games.
In Germany, on Shrove Tuesday decided to cook pancakes, muffins and fried sausage.During carnivals people get oneself up in costumes of witches, devils, forest spirits, clowns and various fairy-tale characters.In the Netherlands and Belgium festive carnival lasts for three days.These days help themselves pancakes with bacon, pancakes and fried donuts.