milk yield of cattle depends on the characteristics of the animal, conditions, age and many other factors.But in the first place - the breed and origin.In Russia, widespread since the beginning of the last century, had black (mottled) breed of cattle, which today holds a leading position.
Among the distinctive characteristics relating to the exterior of the animals, of course, is the main suit.Wool is always black-and-white color, very pleasant and soft to the touch.The thin skin forms slight folds on the body.The back and loin is exactly straight line.The elongated body of the animal with a rather bulky belly developed proportionally.The udder is cup-shaped with asymmetrical lobes and very close to each other hind teats.Strong limbs put right.Cow body weight gains very quickly.Weighing 35 kg at birth to adulthood it weighs 470-550 kg with height 140 cm. Bulls considerably heavier - weight of from 850 to 900 kg.
black-motley breed cows refers to the breast, so its meat
Animals are highly adaptable to a variety of climatic conditions.For all weather conditions get used very quickly, easily withstand cold and heat, have good health and stable immunity may be a long time in the pasture and not be afraid of further transition.The unpretentious food, as long as there was a large amount of food - like green pastures and hay and silage.With all these features, the farmers prefer the breeding of this breed.
Patriotic black-and-white breed cows bred by breeders in the 30s of the twentieth century.Local cattle from different regions of Russia crossed with Dutch cows.The work was conducted in two stages: first the preparation of various hybrids, and then to improve them.The official recognition of the Ministry of Agriculture, the breed received only as an independent in 1959, after which it became popular not only in our country but also abroad, black-motley breed of cows.
great importance to this indicator region is of breeding cows.The fat content of the milk is between 3.2-3.9 percent, and a high threshold it is marked in cows in Siberia, Estonia and Ukraine.Breeding farms boast large and it is necessary, sometimes reaches 6500 kg.Battling for the lead and compete on various parameters, farms and fix achievements in udoyu.The record is currently the number 10,000-12,000 kg.Such a quantity of milk per lactation of today can give black-motley breed of cows.Characteristics of meat productivity is significantly different.Only 50% of the slaughter carcass yield.
There are several types of this breed distinguished by external features, for udoyu, depending on the place of breeding.These indicators are affected by climatic conditions, the level of breeding work in the region and the source type of livestock.
breed cows of the Central region of Russia
black-motley breed of cows in this part of Russia has its own characteristics.This is a very large animal.The cows have an average weight of 650 kg and a high efficiency (7500-8000 kg milk fat content of not less than 3.6%).Bulls sometimes reach the mass of 1000 kg.The breed was created by crossing native breeds of cattle (Kholmogory, Yaroslavl and others.) With German and Dutch.Inbreed types bred in Central Russia (Moscow, nepetsinsky and barybinsky) were withdrawn in 2003-2004.
breed cows of black-motley suit the Urals
These animals are more lightweight type of constitution they are very harmonious and have a somewhat dry physique.Color mainly black with white spots of various sizes, located throughout the body in a chaotic manner.Basically Tagil by crossing breeds with white cattle Baltic and appeared in the Urals, the black mottled cow breed.Characteristics of milk production is somewhat different: the high fat content of milk, reaching up to 4.0%, milk production can not be considered very high.Even in the tribal state farms, they rarely exceed 5500 kg.In 2003, by crossing Holstein bulls and cows of black-motley breed breeders created interbreed type - Ural.
Black-and-white cattle in Siberia
result of crossbreeding of Dutch cattle in Siberia has been the emergence of large and massive animals, weighing up to 560 kg.The value of milk yield ranged from 4500 to 5000 kg, while cows in breeding farms and can produce 8000 kg.Milk has a high percentage of fat.Inbreed types created in Siberia (Priobsky, Ilmensky) are well adapted to the Siberian weather conditions.
Thanks genes Holstein cows, especially the exterior and milk production become more and more common, which has black mottled cow breed.Photos of animals that can be found in the literature, not much different, for it is impossible to determine - bred breed in Siberia and the Urals.They all have a very similar constitution and mostly milk type addition.
breed Holstein cows
Improving black-motley breed of domestic cattle breeders used in their work Holsteins.Originally from the Netherlands, these animals, because of its best quality, spread throughout the world, especially becoming popular in Germany.The official registration of the breed was in 1983 in North America.Today, it is where 90% of the total number of cattle bred in the territory.Strong constitution and high productivity have become the hallmarks of that famous breed of Holstein cows.Black-and-white color of these animals is the predominant, but there are representatives of completely black and even red and variegated color.White markings most often located on the belly, on the legs and on the tip of the tail.
Cows have strong bones, well developed muscles and expressed milk form.Cupped udders characterized by large capacity.During the day yield can reach more than 60 kg, and productivity per lactation - 8000 kg.At a height of 150 cm cows can reach 700 kg, bulls - over 1100 kg.By providing high quality animal nutrition, these figures may be even higher.Calves are born weighing 38 to 47 kg.By the terms of the content of the representatives of Holsteins are very demanding, so you need to approach this issue very responsibly.They do not have a high resistance to stress, but at the same time very affectionate and cleanly.During the summer, as there is enough grass feed that cows are fed on roaming, but in the winter you want to use in the diet of hay, beans, soybean meal and corn.
Yaroslavl breed cows
it prints in the Yaroslavl Province by selection of local cattle, for which he was named.This breed is one of the oldest in Russia, and today more and more supplanted by others with higher productivity.This black-motley breed cows, differs slightly angular physique, narrow chest and under-developed muscles.A feature of the suit Yaroslavl breed is the predominant black color with small white spots on the head, abdomen and legs.Animals have low growth not exceeding 127 cm at the withers and weight rarely exceed 500 kg.Well-developed udder rounded shape provides a high milk production - up to 6000 kg, the fat content of 4.2-5.2%.
Today Yaroslavl breed because of its weak performance is not a economic value as before.Livestock her declining, but despite this, it is great value for breeding.So, thanks to interbreeding with yaroslavok Holstein bulls, a new type of Yaroslavl breed - St. Michael's having a high milk production.In addition, these animals are different maturity, longevity, easy to adapt to local conditions.
And in the private sector today is more common in black-and-white breed cows.Reviews owners say a number of advantages over any other.Breeding, which is constantly held today with this breed, aims to create a large animal, with higher rates of productivity and to correct all the shortcomings of the exterior.