Prevention of bad habits: a model of risk and protective factors

problem of juvenile dependence today are sharp and require immediate solutions, as well as participate in the preventive work of the authorities and the public.Primary prevention of bad habits is most effective.It was at a time when children learn only about the possibility of the use of psychoactive substances or making the first test.Experts have long engaged in the study of this issue.In world practice there are several models of preventive work.

most effective is the model of risk and protective factors.Preventing bad habits based on leveling the risk factors that contribute to the abuse, and, on the contrary, strengthening protective factors that contribute to the formation of a reduced propensity for substance use.Identify several groups of factors.

Group personal factors.How successful teenager in the implementation of their plans?He wakes up to a life term?As relates to the possibility of the use of tobacco, alcohol or drugs?As relates to violence?Can the resist group pressure?What value sy

stem is formed from a teenager?How developed self-esteem?Positive or negative answers to these questions give an idea of ​​the formation of the personal exposure of the schoolboy habit.

group of family factors include system roles, and the rights and responsibilities in the family.The level of family conflict, the existing system of relations, the level of parent-child trust mismatch mutual expectations of children and parents, family structure and culture of a healthy way of life - this is an incomplete list of reasons that influence the formation of addictive behavior of children.

not least important is meaningful environment teenager.Drinking teen group to the use of surfactants, values ​​and hierarchy relationships dictate certain behavior.

In addition, school risk factors play a role in the self-determination of students.The school lack of success leads the desire to assert itself in another field of activity.If a student is not able to feel the situation of success in the development of science or in further education, it will be run out of the school environment and look for ways to self-realization.Another such risk factor is the attitude of the teachers and classmates, the status of the student in a group of peers.

Prevention of bad habits should be aimed at reducing risk factors, among which is now the most important: school maladjustment, which began in the early school years;violation of child-parent relationships, family maladjustment, low efficiency of personal resources.

Here we must note the fact that the prevention of bad habits is directly related to the theory of coping behavior of the individual (coping behavior).The theory is based on the concept of stress and behavioral strategies of the individual coping with stressful situations.In total there are three main coping strategies: problem-solving, the search for social support and avoidance of problems.In each situation in life a person uses a particular coping strategy of behavior.However, the selection strategy to be effective with respect to this situation.For example, in a stressful situation should be able to solve the problem, and the other - it is better to seek the support of society.

Prevention of bad habits in the school should be based on modern approaches to prevention.Bullying school personnel about the terrible addiction or stories about black lungs of smokers for many years do not bring positive results.Sometimes pedagogical preventive maintenance only provokes interest of adolescents to tobacco or alcohol.Therefore, measures for the prevention of bad habits to build a more efficient, taking into account risk factors and protection.